**Summary**

*y* = *a*f(x):

The graph is scaled by factor *a* parallel to the y-axis.

If *a* is negative, the graph is reflected in the x-axis.

*y* = f(*ax*):

The graph is scaled by factor 1/*a* parallel to the x-axis.

If *a* is negative, the graph is reflected in the y-axis.

*y* = f(*x* + *a*):

The graph is translated in the direction of the negative x-axis by *a* units.

If *a* is negative, the graph is translated in the direction of the positive x-axis.

*y* = f(*x*) + *a*:

The graph is translated in the direction of the positive y-axis by *a* units.

If *a* is negative, the graph is translated in the direction of the negative y-axis.

You can define functions using these operators: | ||||

+ | - | * | / | ** |

abs( ) | sqrt( ) | ln( ) | exp( ) | pi |

sin( ) | cos( ) | tan( ) | ||

asin( ) | acos( ) | atan( ) |